Developing a crisis communication plan

Organizations face a myriad of challenges that can disrupt normal operations and potentially damage their reputation. Developing a robust crisis communication plan is not just a best practice; it’s a strategic imperative. Let’s explore the critical steps and key considerations involved in creating an effective crisis communication plan that can be a guiding light during tough times.

Understand the importance of a crisis communication plan

In today’s fast-paced world, crises can emerge unexpectedly. For instance, consider the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic that caught many organizations off guard. A crisis communication plan is your organization’s shield, offering a structured approach to respond promptly and effectively to unforeseen events. 

Take the example of Johnson & Johnson’s swift and transparent communication during the Tylenol tampering crisis in 1982. Their decisive actions not only protected public safety but also exemplified the importance of having a well-prepared crisis communication plan. 

Such a plan serves as a proactive measure to protect your reputation and maintain stakeholder trust, as demonstrated by how Toyota navigated the 2009 accelerator pedal recall crisis. Their clear communication and commitment to addressing the issue head-on helped rebuild customer confidence and mitigate reputational damage.

Conduct a risk assessment

Begin by identifying potential risks and vulnerabilities specific to your organization. These could range from natural disasters, such as earthquakes or floods, to cybersecurity threats like phishing attacks or data breaches. Additionally, include public relations challenges such as negative social media campaigns, product recalls or sending an unintended message to your customer base in your assessment. 

A comprehensive risk assessment forms the foundation of your crisis communication plan, allowing you to anticipate and address potential crises based on real data and emerging trends.

Define roles and responsibilities

Clearly outline the roles and responsibilities of key individuals within your organization during a crisis. Designate a crisis communication team with representatives from various departments, each assigned specific tasks. This ensures a coordinated and efficient response. 

Consider a manufacturing company that updates its crisis communication plan annually. The Human Resources representative in the crisis communication team may be assigned the task of ensuring employee well-being during a crisis. In the annual review, this role could be adjusted based on feedback and lessons learned from previous incidents.

Furthermore, ensure that all members of the crisis communication team undergo regular training and simulations. This helps them understand their roles thoroughly and enhances their ability to respond effectively during an actual crisis.

Create a communication flowchart

Develop a communication flowchart that outlines the decision-making process and the chain of command during a crisis. This visual representation helps streamline communication channels, reducing the risk of misinformation and ensuring a cohesive response.

To illustrate, consider a hypothetical scenario in which a company is facing a cyber-attack. The communication flowchart could start with the identification of the incident by the IT security team. From there, it may show the immediate escalation to the Chief Information Officer (CIO) and Chief Executive Officer (CEO). Subsequently, the flowchart could branch into different communication channels for internal teams, public relations, and external stakeholders.

A well-designed communication flowchart provides a roadmap for information dissemination, ensuring that critical details are conveyed to the right individuals or teams promptly.

Establish key messaging

Craft key messages that closely align with your organization’s values and goals, serving as a foundation for building a positive public perception. This is particularly important during a crisis when uncertainties can prevail. Maintaining clarity and consistency in messaging is paramount for preserving trust and credibility in challenging situations. Messages should be carefully designed to be adaptable to different scenarios and address the specific concerns of various stakeholders, ensuring that the organization’s response remains cohesive and reliable.

Leverage technology 

Embracing technology is crucial for enhancing crisis communication capabilities. For instance, during a crisis, communication platforms like Slack or Microsoft Teams can streamline internal communication within a team. Monitoring tools such as Google Analytics, media monitoring systems or social media monitoring tools like Hootsuite can help track public sentiment and identify emerging issues. 

Additionally, notification systems like emergency alert systems can be employed for rapid and widespread dissemination of information. Incorporating technology in crisis communication significantly improves response times and overall crisis management effectiveness.

Conduct simulation exercises

Regularly conducting simulation exercises is a key practice to ensure the effectiveness of your crisis communication plan. These exercises involve simulated crisis scenarios that allow the team to practice their roles and responsibilities. 

An example of such an exercise is the annual “Dark Sky” simulation conducted by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) in the United States. This drill simulates a catastrophic event to test the nation’s response and communication capabilities. Through these exercises, organizations can identify potential gaps in their plans and improve coordination among team members, ultimately leading to a more seamless response during a real crisis.

Monitor and adapt

A crisis communication plan is not a static document; it requires regular monitoring and adaptation to remain effective. For instance, as organizations evolve, their structures and communication needs may change. Periodic reviews of the crisis communication plan can ensure it reflects the current organizational structure and is aligned with industry trends. 

Moreover, staying informed about emerging risks, such as those related to cybersecurity or global events, is essential. The World Health Organization (WHO) frequently updates its pandemic response plans based on the evolving landscape of infectious diseases, demonstrating the importance of continuous monitoring and adaptation in crisis communication planning. Regularly reviewing and updating the plan helps organizations stay vigilant and responsive to potential crises.


Developing a crisis communication plan is an investment in your organization’s resilience. It’s not just about weathering the storm; it’s about emerging stronger on the other side. By proactively preparing for crises, organizations can navigate turbulence with confidence, safeguarding their reputation and maintaining the trust of stakeholders. Remember, the true test of a crisis communication plan lies not in its existence but in its execution when the unexpected occurs.

By: Angela Hunt, Director, Marketing and Sales at Cliniconex

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